The order of a distributed system is said to be robust if perturbations from lower levels of the system do not affect the stability of the system. Centrally controlled systems may be at more risk if the function of one or more crucial components is disrupted. Robust distributed systems have an advantage, as redundant components may compensate for the malfunction of any one part, allowing for self-correction of the system. Ladyman, Lambert, and Weisner(“What is a Complex System“, 2011) compare robust complex systems with random systems, noting that random systems may be trivially robust, in that disturbances do not affect them at all. Instead, it is the regularity of order which allows us to form some measurement of robustness.